What Is It? How Does It Work? Types, Codes

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Here is the most complete and thorough explanation of CNC machining on the internet.

You will learn:

What is CNC Machining?

How CNC Machining is Used

Parts and Components Made by CNC Machining

Industrial Uses for CNC Machining

And much more…

Scroll down to chapter one to begin.

Chapter One – What is CNC Machining?

CNC machining is an electromechanical process that manipulates tools around three to five axes, with high precision and accuracy, cutting away excess material to produce parts and components. The initial designs to be machined by CNC machining are created in CAD, which is then translated into CNC codes to provide programmed instructions to the tools in a CNC machine.

CNC machining produces cutting edge quality on turned components using a wide variety of applications that require vertical and horizontal machining.

The multitasking ability of CNC machines allows for the completion of a component or part in a single operation, with ease and efficiency. The types of applications performed by CNC machines include bushings, collars, fasteners, fittings, Jasa Machining inserts, machined components, machined washers, pins, nuts, spacers, spindles, standoffs, drive shafts, and splined shafts to name a few.

Chapter Two – The CNC Machining Process

CNC or Computer Numerical Control machining is a logical and rational process that is planned and designed for the efficient production of parts. The computer controlled machines perform a variety of tasks that have been programmed into the equipment, which begins with creating a two or three dimensional rendering on a computer.

Once the design file is loaded and coded, the machine performs each operation according to the design parameters.

The CNC Machining Process

The difference between CNC machining and other manufacturing processes is that it is a subtractive process that removes layers of material to achieve a particular shape.

Computer Programming

The key to the success of CNC manufacturing is the initial programming. The aplikasi must be coded with the proper instructions keeping the machine within its limitations. The processes for CNC equipment are derived from the person who creates its instructions. Care is taken in the development of the programmed instructions to avoid errors and loss of production time.

Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

CAD-CAM is a descriptive term for the perangkat lunak used for designing and machining parts and components using a CNC machine. CAD is perangkat lunak used to design, draw, create, and shape parts through the use of geometric shapes and constructs. CAM, on the other hand, takes the information from CAD and translates it into machine language, which is referred to as G-Code.

Before the CAD designed contoh can be changed into machine language, the CAM software determines the cutting paths for the tools for the removal of the excess material from the workpiece. CAD and CAM work together to provide the CNC machine with the proper and accurate instructions to perform the necessary cutting operations.

CNC Machine Setup

Before the CAD-CAM acara can be downloaded into the machine, it has to be set up with the proper cutting tools. There are two methods for completing tool changing. The first method is by pulling tools from the tool cart and placing them in the machine.

The second method is an ATC or automatic tool changer, which has tools stored on a drum or chain. When programmed with the required tools, the ATC removes the old tool and inserts the new one. The purpose of an ATC is to save time and increase efficiency.

An important part of CNC machine setup is the establishment of the gage point, which is how long the tip of the tool is from a point of reference. The proper setting of this part of the process ensures that the tool will cut to the appropriate depth.

One of the final steps in CNC machine setup is the testing of coolant or lubricant. Jasa Machining Medan Coolant is delivered by either air, mist, flood, or high pressure. An essential part of checking the coolant is determining the pressure at which it is delivered. The wrong pressure can lead to tool damage, while the wrong amount can damage the machine and equipment.

An unfortunate error made when setting up a CNC machine is failure to check the coolant, which can smell bad, have an insufficient amount, be of low concentration, or may not be appropriately filtered.

Work Holding

The work holding is a device that is used to secure, support, and mount the workpiece. Also referred to as a CNC fixture, it ensures conformity and interchangeability as well as smooth operation. Unlike a jig, the work holding device secures, supports, and stabilizes the workpiece.

Much like the tools used on a CNC machine, work holding fixtures come in several different types, which include turning, milling, drilling, boring, and grinding.

Loading the G-Codes

G-codes have been accepted as the universal language for CNC machining. Though there are standard G-codes for all CNC machines, manufacturers will change G-codes to make them specific to their machines. There is a G-code for every movement of the cutting tools in a CNC machine.

Though various forms of software will create G-codes from a CAD design, they can also be handwritten or conversational, which does not require the use of a CAD design. G-codes can be loaded into the CNC machine using a USB, directly from the CAM computer, or programmed directly into the machine.

Program Proofing

Program proofing is the final step before making the actual cuts. The purpose of proofing is to determine if the program is correct, and that the CNC machine setup is accurate to avoid problems with the g-code.

This process is used to examine if there are any errors in the g-code. Proofing can be accomplished by cutting air, where the machine runs through the cutting process without cutting the workpiece. Cutting air is time consuming and ties up the machine. Another method is g-code simulator, a computer acara that simulates the CNC process.

Machining the Part

Once all the preparations have been completed, it is time to insert the workpiece and do the cutting. The first workpiece must be watched carefully as it goes through the CNC process. It is the prototype for all of the parts to follow and will provide data and information regarding the success of the programming.


After the setup and testing processes are completed, the CNC machine is put into production. CNC machining allows producers to manufacture parts faster, more efficiently, and safely with every part being an exact duplicate of the original design.


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Chapter Three – Types of CNC Machining

A major advantage of CNC machining is the wide array of cuts CNC machines can make. There is a limitless number of shapes, designs, configurations, and images that can be created by the CNC process. Its use enhances the quality of the final part and eliminates errors and flaws from the final product.

Types of CNC Machining

Though CNC machines can be programmed to perform a single function, one of the benefits of CNC machining is their ability to perform multiple operations in a single implementation of the tool. This quality allows producers to insert a single workpiece and have several cuts performed during one machine cycle.

Two types of cuts are male and female. Male cuts are around the outside edges of the workpiece to ensure that the workpiece has the proper dimensions. Female cuts are on the inside of the workpiece. Whether the cuts are male or female, the corners of the cuts are rounded.

Cleanout cuts are similar to female cuts but do not go all the way through the workpiece, while center or online cutting follows the center of the vector shape.

Lathe CNC Machining

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